O estudo é Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform – Lessos from Around the World (Andreas Schleicher, OCDE, 2016, p 26):
Some attributes of effective teachers
Teaching is a complex task that involves interactions with a great variety of learners in a wide range of different circumstances. It is clear there is not a single set of teacher attributes and behaviours that is universally effective for all types of students and learning environments, especially when schooling varies in many ways across different countries. That said, one consistent finding is that effective teachers are intellectually capable people who are articulate and knowledgeable, and are able to think, communicate and plan systematically. Students achieve more with teachers who perform well on tests of literacy and verbal ability (Gustafsson, 2003; Rice, 2003).
In an influential study, Shulman (1992) identified five broad areas for the development of professional knowledge and expertise in teaching:
- Behaviour – effectiveness is evidenced by teacher behaviour and student learning outcomes.
- Cognition – teachers as intelligent, thoughtful, sentient beings, characterised by intentions, strategies, decisions and reflections.
- Content – the nature and adequacy of teacher knowledge of the substance of the curriculum being taught.
- Character – the teachers serve as moral agents, deploying a moral-pedagogical craft.
- Knowledge of, and sensitivity to, the cultural, social and political contexts and the environments of their students.
Studies by Lingard et al. (2002) and Ayres et al. (2000) identified a range of personal competencies that influence the quality and effectiveness of teaching: sound subject knowledge; communication skills; the ability to relate to individual students; self-management skills; organisational skills; classroom-management skills; problem-solving skills; a repertoire of teaching methods; teamwork skills; and research skills.
A key question for research and policy has always been: What distinguishes excellent teaching from merely good teaching? One strand of research tries to identify the attributes of expert teachers. For example, Hattie (2003) drew on an extensive review of research to identify five essential skills that distinguish highly competent teachers. He considers expert teachers as those who can: identify essential representations of their subject, based on how they organise and use their content knowledge; guide learning through classroom interactions by creating optimal classroom environments; monitor student learning and provide feedback; promote effective outcomes through the manner in which they treat students, and their passion for teaching and learning; and influence student outcomes by engaging students, providing challenging tasks and goals, and enhancing “deep” learning or understanding.
Based on a review of the literature reported in Berliner (2001, 2004), expert teachers are characterised as those who: make better use of knowledge; have extensive knowledge of pedagogical content, including deep representations of subject-matter knowledge; have better problem-solving strategies; can better adapt and modify goals to suit individual diverse learners; can improvise better; are better at making decisions; present more challenging objectives; maintain better classroom climate; have better perceptions of classroom events; are better able to read cues from students; are more sensitive to context; monitor learning better and provide feedback to students; test hypotheses more frequently; hold greater respect for students; and display more passion for teaching.
Sternberg and Horvath (1995) used findings from psychological research to distinguish experts from novices. They found that experts bring more knowledge to bear in solving problems than do novices; experts are able to solve problems more efficiently than are novices; and experts are more able to arrive at insightful solutions to problems than are novices. According to Sternberg and Horvath, it is the store of knowledge that expert teachers hold that accounts for their ability to solve problems more efficiently and to arrive at more insightful solutions than novices.
Westerman (1991) investigated how teachers develop their decision-making skills and found that one of the notable differences between novices and experts was the latter’s ability to combine new subject-content knowledge with prior knowledge.
Many, if not most, of the key attributes and skills of successful teachers will only become evident once they are in the job. Formal, measurable skills are necessary but not sufficient; they must be complemented by the intangible qualities that are difficult to quantify. Processes must be put in place to identify those qualities when determining who enters teacher education, the criteria for qualification as a teacher, and the basis on which teachers are selected for employment and career advancement.