Segregação e Desigualdade pelos EUA

O fenómeno é diferente do nosso, mas a criação de micro-segregações no interior das escolas, com a recomendação do uso extensivo de grupos de nível no seio das turmas, assim como da utilização de metodologias separadas para cada grupo de alunos e não de uma abordagem verdadeiramente diferenciada e baseada no trabalho colaborativo entre alunos com diferentes perfis e ritmos de aprendizagem, fazem-me soar campainhas de alarme. Porque nenhuma metodologia deve ser deixada para trás e o que sinto é que agora, ao contrário do que se afirma, se optou pelo padronização, mesmo que em paralelo… e nem sempre é fácil resistir à vaga que se levantou e levou muita gente a pensar que só assim está bem, a mesma coisa, ao mesmo tempo, com os mesmos materiais… só faltando obrigar com o mesmo tom de voz e circulação pelo espaço da sala.

Serão os professores quem promove o insucesso dos alunos ou a forma recomenda a partir de cima para organizar o trabalho com os alunos, dividindo-os para que alcancem todos um sucesso que, na verdade, será sempre desigual?

In politics, there has been an overall lack of leadership on the issue of creating diverse schools. Conservative administrations have actively opposed desegregation efforts. Those who see the value and urgency of integration have often been quieted by harsh criticism if they challenge the orthodoxy that inequality can be solved within highly unequal schools through accountability, will power, and sanctions. As evidence accumulates that this orthodox theory of education reform has failed, the response of its advocates has been to press even harder, imposing a still more rigid set of tests and sanctions. The dominant tendency among educators is a parroting of policies that have failed for decades. They fear that mentioning “race” will upset other people and trigger criticism for using “excuses” to avoid their responsibility for educating all children fairly. Ignoring the well-documented relationship between segregation and educational inequality, the focus instead has been on creating intense testing drills in segregated schools and on blaming the schools and the teachers. Often the emphasis is only on English and math, which radically narrows instruction for millions of students in these segregated schools, discourages teachers and principals who then try to exit these schools, and in the end does not produce real educational gains.

(…)

If we are to have a successful and equitable society, especially at a time when success depends on education and the ability for all groups to live and work well together, then we need a new commitment to access and integration wherever it is feasible. If we passively accept the spread of segregated and blatantly unequal schools into more and more suburbs, then many more communities will experience the decline and disinvestment that led to the collapse of many city neighborhoods a half century ago. Whites could better understand—and work to change— palpable inequalities by simply spending time observing classes and talking to educators in nearby schools. African American and/or Latino schools must not let themselves be pushed back into a form of multiple inequalities that never worked effectively on any scale, justified by the claim that more tests, sanctions or charters will overcome these inequalities.

Simpson

 

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